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Bmj specialities, Ward Round

Jenei István

Source: Based on Grabanp. The health care context The chapter presents the crucial environmental factors, i.

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The first section lists the arguments which urge the transformation of health care in general, and hence give a significant impetus to Lean. Then it quotes some works which call the attention to errors and wastes in hospital care.

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The rest of the chapter is devoted to the characteristics of health care services, different in many respects from those of production, and of relevance for the interpretation of the results. Actuality of the transformation of health care: macro-level challenges In recent years, bmj specialities performance and expenditures of health care systems have moved to the focus of social and political attention in the advanced countries.

In the globalising world, ever fewer of these economies can afford to finance the operation of their welfare systems in the same way as before de Koning et al.

EndNote 1 World Health Organization. Eye Lond. To evaluate the effect of COVID pandemic and national lockdown on patient care at a tertiary-care ophthalmology institute. Indian J Ophthalmol.

The bmj specialities care systems, in particular, warrant special bmj specialities due to their significant and growing share in public expenditures Figure 5and their consequent major effect on such macro-economic indicators as the development of the general government deficit, for example. The growth of health care expenditures is the result of such trends, typical in the advanced economies, as the aging of society, conducive to the widening of the circle of beneficiaries as a matter of course, or the application of the results of scientific development, which implies the use of bmj specialities and more expensive procedures, instruments and bmj specialities.

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However, several countries, struggling in the grip of globalisation, can simply not bear a further growth of expenditures. Source: www. Many sources agree that this sector is characterised by poor quality — poor results and wasteful operation — in many countries of the world.

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If that is so, then society has every right to demand the service providers concerned to reduce the wastes and improve the results of care provision. The governments have set the target of the cost reduction or at least the prevention of the further drastic increase of expenditures the world over.

Ward Round

These bmj bmj specialities measures, however, have proved ineffective already in the medium run, since people insisted on being provided quality health care Gulácsi, As stated by a former - 32 - István Jenei: Lean transformation of hospital processes — Structuring foreign and Hungarian experiences, PhD Dissertation, Corvinus University of Budapest, Doctoral School in Business Administration director of the clinical administration, the developments must find new courses; a mere increase of the resources bmj specialities not produce adequate results and, as far as the NHS is concerned, capacity problems are due to everyday routines, habits, which no one has ever tried to change Bennett — Lister, cited by Parnaby — Towill, De Koning et al.

Health care professionals can influence that De Koning et bmj specialities. The macro-level bmj specialities is the totality of the entities institutions constituting the health care system. Initiatives which affect several institutions in the bmj specialities way will obviously produce change also at macro level.

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Actuality of the transformation of health care: micro-level challenges This section demonstrates why it is inevitable to transform health care at the level of service provider institutions.

In particular, why it is important to improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of the health service processes in the developed countries Hungary included.

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It presents some international researches which highlight these problems. Although they mostly present the health services of the US and the UK, given the nature of the problem, the situation is probably similar also in the other advanced economies.

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This hypothesis is apparently corroborated by the experiences of research projects carried out in other countries Laursen et al. The consultants were invited by the hospital management to survey the hospital processes. Of course, this is but one example from the many hospitals of the world.

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Nevertheless, as will be shown later on, it is not an exceptional one. Indeed, more people die annually from medical errors alone than from workplace injuries.

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And, although errors may be more easily detected in hospitals, the problems extend to every health cares setting, including day-surgery and outpatient clinics, retail pharmacies, nursing homes and home care.

Add the financial cost to the human tragedy, and medical error easily rises to the top ranks of urgent, widespread health problems. Moreover, for every patient who dies bmj specialities to medical error or hospital infection, there are 5 to 10 others who suffer infection with less severe consequences. In other words, at the turn of the millennium, in the USA, of people subjected to hospital care for some reason, 88 were infected, injured or provided wrong therapy, and 6 among them actually died bmj specialities to that Spear, In the other services, a quality bmj specialities of even As addendum to the above, it is worth getting acquainted with the results of a research project which observed the activity of 26 nurses in 9 hospitals for a total of hours.